The restoration of a lasting peace in Mali is essential for long term stability in the Sahel region and in a broader sense for Africa and Europe.
At the request of the Malian Government and on the basis of UN resolutions, in particular the UN Security Council Resolution 2085, the Member States of the European Union agreed to establish a mission to train the Malian Armed Forces (MaAF), in the framework of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The First Mandate for the EU-Training Mission in Mali was established in February 2013. We are now at the beginning Mandate 4, which will last until May 2020.''
In January 2012, the Tuareg rebels joined the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) and rose up in arms against the central power in Bamako, demanding the secession of the Azawad region, which was recognized only as a cultural entity by the Malian government.
In just a few months, the entire northern part of the country (Kidal, Timbuktu and Gao) had succumbed to the offensive of the rebels and the Jihadists. In March 2012, Captain Sanogo led a bloodless coup d’état and took over the presidency of the country from Amadou Toumani Touré. Shortly thereafter, on April 6, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) – under the authority of Billal Ag Acherif – unilaterally declared Azawad’s independence.
In June 2012, the Islamists taking advantage of the Tuareg revolt, usurped the Tuaregs and cruelly imposed Sharia law on the entire northern region; a massive displacement of people was taking place from the North to southern Mali and the bordering countries. However, the Jihadists -at the time AQIM, Ansar Dine and MUYAO- took the initiative and, from their northern strongholds, launched a coordinated offensive led by Ansar Dine towards Bamako on 9 January 2013.
Faced with the call for help from Dioncounda Traoré’s newly established civilian transitional government (April 2013), France deployed on Operation Serval. With the support of Malian and Chadian forces, Operation Serval slowed down the advance of these radical Islamist groups. In just a few weeks, the international reaction had lashed out jihadists who, with little or no resistance, abandoned all their northern strongholds, camouflaged themselves among a terrified and defenceless population, took refuge in their dens in the impenetrable Sahelian desert, or fled outside the Malian borders.
In the resolution of the European Parliament of 22 November 2012, reference is made to the request of UNSC resolution 2071, which directly calls upon regional and international organisations, including the EU, to provide coordinated assistance, expertise, training and capacity-building support to the Armed and Security Forces of Mali in order to restore the authority of the State of Mali’.
On 24 December 2012, the President of the Republic of Mali addressed an invitation letter to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR) welcoming the deployment of an EU military training mission in Mali.
All these events led to the approval of the Council Decision 2013/34/CFSP on 13 January 2013.
The first European soldiers arrived in Bamako on February 8, 2012. EUTM Mali was launched by Council Decision 2013/87/CFSP of 18 February 2013, the official date on which the mission begun in Brussels and started in Bamako on 20 February 2013.
EUTM Mali is designed to:
EUTM Mali develops its activities throughout its mission area which comprises the administrative limits of Segou, Kati, Kayes, Sevare and Sikasso Malian Military Regions, as well as the Niger River loop and Timbuktu and Gao cities. It also includes G5S Joint Force Sector HQ in Niger, Chad and Mauritania.
EUTM Mali is a non-executive military mission and therefore it does not participate in combat operations.
EUTM strategic objectives are to:
The EUTM Mali first mandate was approved by Council Decision 2013/34/CFSP of 17 January 2013. The mission contained the following main points:
This document expressly indicates the end of the mandate 15 months after the launch of the mission.
3rd mandate entered into force with the approval of the Council Decision (CFSP) 2016/446 of 23 March 2016, which included the following variations:
The adoption of the Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/716 of 14 May 2018 opened the fourth mandate of EUTM Mali. The variations introduced throughout this document were as follows.
EUTM Military Personnel
Malian Military Trained
The Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC), located in Brussels, has the strategic level responsibility for the planning and conduct of the EU’s non-executive military missions.
It acts under the political control and strategic direction of the Political and Security Committee (PSC).
At operational level, Mission Force Commander (MFCdr) –at present, the Spanish General Enrique Millan- exercises command with the support of a Mission Force HeadQuarters (MFHQ) located in Mali. In addition, a Mission Support Cell (MSC) of the MFHQ is transiently included in the MPCC in Brussels.
The mission currently consists of 580 military personnel deployed between Bamako, Koulikoro and, in the future, Sevare. However, since the third mandate (2016), the activities of the different units have been extended to other areas of the country such as Segou, Kayes, Gao or Timbuktu.
The following units are under the command of the MFCdr:
The MFHQ, which is located in Bamako, is the EUTM unit which contains all the human and material resources that assist MFCdr in the exercise of command over his own forces. It conducts the planning, organization, motivation, coordination and control activities that enable the MFCdr to execute his mission, functions and competences.
The ATF, which is located in Bamako, delivers advisory and education activity to the Ministry of Defence, Etat Major Generale des Armees (EMGA), Armies and Services and Military Region Headquarters, in order to improve how the Malian Armed Forces function and support its transformation process. It also delivers advisory and education activity to the G5 Sahel (G5S) Joint Force Sector Headquarters in order to support the operationalization of the G5S Joint Force.
The ETTF, which is located in Koulikoro, delivers training and education activity, at unit and military schools level, in order to improve the leadership of Malian military officers and NCOs and increase their combat ability in the conduct of Malian Armed Forces military operations.
Force Protection units provide the necessary capability required to ensure the security of EUTM Mali members when delivering their activity, whist providing the guard force to secure both permanent and temporary facilities where EUTM Mali personnel are lodged. For this reason, it has elements deployed in our operating bases, in Bamako, Koulikoro, in deployed locations and, in the future, in Sevare.
Medical treatment facilities provide both preservative and reactive European standard medical support to EUTM Mali members. Elements are deployed in all our operating bases (Bamako, Koulikoro, and, in the future in Sevare) and there are Mobile Emergency Physician Teams with elements of the deployed force.
EUTM Mali mission is made up of personnel from 25 European countries, 21 EU members and 4 non-member states. These EU countries are:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Slovenia, Spain and United Kingdom.
4 European countries (not members of the EU): Georgia, Montenegro, Serbia and Albania.
Born in 1961, Enrique Millán Martínez joined the Spanish Armed Forces in 1980, attending the Army Officers Military Academy in Zaragoza. Trained in the specialised command of mountain troops in 1985, he served as a Lieutenant based in the Pyrenees, in Aragon, in Catalonia, and the Basque Country. Subsequently promoted to the rank of Captain, he commanded an Engineer Company in San Sebastian (1989-1991). In 1991, he successfully completed the Army Signals course, and took command of the Royal Guard’s Signals Company, in Madrid.
In August 1994, Captain Millán deployed for twelve months to the Balkans, as a United Nations Military Observer (UNMO), with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), as member of a team of military observers in Zénica (Bosnia Herzegovina). He then served an additional six months, in the G6 branch at the UNMO mission Headquarters in Zagreb (Croatia).
Between 1996 and 1998, he completed the Spanish Army General Staff course, promoting to Major on graduation, where-after he joined the Army Signals Command, as a general staff officer. Between August 2002 and July 2003, he attended the UK´s Joint Command and Staff course (JCSC), where he concurrently studied and graduated with a Master’s Degree in Defence Studies from King´s College London. In July 2003, he became an analyst of international affairs, at the Army General Staff, in Madrid.
In December 2005, still at the rank of Major, he returned to Bosnia, joining the European Union’s Operation ALTHEA. For these six months, he was based in Sarajevo, in the Operations Centre, at the EUFOR mission Headquarters.
Between 2006 and 2009, now as Lieutenant-colonel, he held the post of SO1 G5 at the Headquarters of the Eurocorps, in Strasbourg, France. On returning to Spain, he rejoined the Spanish Army General Staff.
In 2011 he deployed to Afghanistan for five months as a G5 Plans Officer in the Headquarters Regional Command West, based in Herat, as part of the NATO ISAF mission.
Between December 2012 and December 2014, Colonel Millán commanded the 1st Signals Regiment, in Burgos; a unit dedicated to operating communications and information systems at the tactical level.
Since promoting to Brigadier General in February 2016, he has commanded the Sub-directorate for network operations of the Army Communications, Information Systems and Technical Assistance Command, until December 2017.
Brigadier General Millán speaks English and French. He holds deployment medals from the UN, the EU, NATO and France. He has been married now for 24 years, and he is father of two sons and one daughter.
He took command of the European Union Training Mission Mali (EUTM-Mali) at the end of January 2018.
201210 December 2012: approval of the crisis management concept by the European Union.
201317 January 2013: founding of EUTM Mali and appointment of Brigadier-General Lecointre (France) as the Commander of the mission.
2014 01 January to 18 March 2014: training of the fourth Malian GTIA “BALANZAN”.
2015 16 March 2015: The fourth Malian GTIA BALANZAN refresher training.
2016 11 January 2016: Training by the units of the 32nd infantry regiment in Kati.
201713 February – 28 April 2017: CMATT 3 – Segou.
2018 08 January 2018: Start of CIMIC Course
2018 05 February – 03 May 2018: TACP Basic Course
In order to enhance leadership skills in the MaAF, leadership education and training, especially for the junior and middle leadership, appears crucial.
The Mission aims to develop the military education system by integrating EUTM instructors into the officer and non-commissioned officer school, in order to improve the authority, legitimacy, actions and behaviour of each MaAF leader.
The main focus lies on legal and leadership skills education, tactical and strategical education, training planning process, basic military principles and International Humanitarian Law.
Since 2013, EUTM Mali has successfully trained 8 Battlegroups whereas 5 Battlegroups have been retrained. Additionally, several Leadership Courses as well as Specialised Training Courses took place. In total, more than 11500 soldiers have been trained by EUTM Mali which represents approximately 1/3 of the Malian Army.
In order to transition to an autonomous Malian Armed Forces training in the future, EUTM will concentrate on a gradual “Train the Trainer” and “Monitor the Trainer” approach focusing on Malian Armed Forces leaders mainly in the military region headquarter garrisons, Malian military schools or at the EUTM Training Centre in Koulikoro.
EUTM Mali provides advice at both, strategic and regional level, to the Ministry of Defence, Malian Armed Forces (MaAF) authorities and to military headquarters in the military region garrisons in support of to the implementation of the structural reforms encompassed in the Defence Programming Law. Additionally, the Mission assists the MaAF in assessing the implementation of the reform.
French-speaking, multi-disciplinary, military advisors share their experience and expertise with their Malian counterparts in the domains of human resources management, logistics, intelligence, conduct of operations, information systems, finances and planning.
This type of course, which lasts from four to twelve weeks depending on MaAF requirements, ensures that future Malian instructors are trained to independently plan and deliver high-quality training in their home unit locations. The TTT (Train The Trainer) approach is used in all our training and advising efforts both in centralised in KTC and/or during a CMATT deployment.
The focus of the course is on methods of instruction, as well as the preparation and planning of teaching and practical training.